KESS_vs_SWRO Desalination

The Layman’s Guide to KESS®© Technologies
Optimized Modular Desalination Cells
Helping to solve the world’s fresh water shortage


Many have asked for a simple concise guide to complement the KESS Science and Patent White Papers, which focuses on the “how” and “why” questions, primarily utilizing the physics and the math.

While appropriate for some, most people aren’t really interested in formulas, variables, equations, etc. … just a simple quick explanation, “What is “It”, and How does “It” work? ...in straightforward simple to understand language.

So here goes.

What is KESS? KESS Cells represents the ability to affordably and economically extract fresh water from salt/brackish waters on a modularly based large scale, without RO membranes, motors, and pumps. At its lowest common denominator, KESS (Kinetic Energy Solar Still) captures and sums many small incremental improvements and discovered physics phenomena, to vastly increase the overall efficiency of desalination systems, while importantly, requiring only renewable energy (solar, wind, donkeys/camels walking in circles, etc.).

When people ask how KESS works (recently U.S. Patents and Intr’l WIPO Trademark published), our best reply, to date, has been to use an example most all of us can relate to. We offer that, generally speaking, KESS can be thought of as a “hurricane in a box”. Painting that “word picture” pretty much says it all.

Just like birds hinting to men, that flight Was possible, hurricanes can lead us to understand, and offer many hints for how to extract fresh drinkable water from the saline oceans/seas.

Most everyone knows that hurricanes are responsible for extracting and collecting massive amounts of fresh water, from the salt water oceans/seas, transporting and dumping (sometimes many feet of it), onto dry land. We’ve seen and experienced this first hand.

The planet is what scientists universally call an “open system”. That is, man can’t and doesn’t control any of these many processes… We can only observe, monitor, and record the results. How fast are the winds? What are the air and water temps? Where and how much water is collected? What is the air pressure? Etc.…

But, What If, what IF, in a fully enclosed “closed system” you could not only observe and monitor these variables, but control, optimize and maximize them at the same time as well? The standard accepted evaporation predication equation used for almost 60 years has only (6) variables. KESS not only controls these variables in a “box” (closed system), but adds another (10) previously undescribed and primarily unknown variables; while simultaneously optimizing and maximizing each. And when you sum all these small (and some large) incremental improvements, within a closed system, the resultant production gain is sizeable.

We KNOW (control and optimize) how the fresh water separates/evaporates from the salt water. We KNOW (control and optimize) where and when the water will condense and collect. We KNOW (and control) what the internal temps and pressures are. We KNOW (and maximize) what the evaporative surface areas are; (no longer squared on a level (X*Y), but rather nearly (X*Y) ^3)) inside the system. How? In some part, by optimizing the surface areas and controlled via programmed internal micro voltage powered PLC’s (automated computer controls), sensors and valves.

IF you understand and comply with the physics and what the math says MUST happen, the rest is seemingly straightforward, providing the appropriate are known and controlled.

The autonomous discrete and modular KESS Cell devices actually then become the derivate result of what the equations describe. In fact, you can see the parts in situ and their corresponding variables. It all makes perfect sense, once seen in the proper light.

Let’s take a step back and quickly look at the competing desalination technologies and how they compare to KESS. Reverse Osmosis (RO), standard and multi-effect Solar Desalination.

RO systems, universally, all share common theory and attributes. Push salt water through semi-permeable membranes that capture the salt ions, using much of this extracted water to backflush the salt out of the membranes, then dump the resulting (highly toxic concentrated) brine back into the source (sea, ocean, etc.), then repeat.

What pressures do RO and salt water RO (SWRO) systems require? Anywhere from 1,000 – 2,000 psi… Which is a LOT. This requires expensive, often replaced membranes, huge, expensive pumps, and even larger high wattage, power draining motors. And, afterwards you’re dumping more than half of the intake water right back into the ocean/sea, as a highly toxic, environmentally hazardous waste material concentrated brine that kills everything in huge “dead zones”. That’s RO (SWRO), in a nutshell. “Good, bad, and ugly.”

Note: It should be strongly emphasized here that KESS technology, (owing to the absence of foulable/clogged membranes), will be working extremely well in concert with, (not against) SWRO plants. How? KESS can easily accept the toxic effluent water from SWRO systems, and efficiently reduce it down to its baggable byproducts salt, and water. KESS can effortlessly go places where no RO system can.

Let’s now look at some of the earlier attempts at solar desalination. Many bright, learned, and well-funded people have failed in these directions. Ignoring (or perhaps unfamiliar with the physics and underlying principles). Earlier systems attempted to focus maximum solar energy (with large parabolic mirrors, etc.) onto static, horizontal, minimized, surface areas (long round pipe tubes, etc.)

As it was “known and assumed” that water needed to heated to the boiling point for steam to form, and desalination to occur, all of these systems required high temps (at 212º F/100ºC), which (according to the basic gas laws) necessarily resulted in high vapor pressures (which in actuality was acting in direct opposition to the evaporation they were trying to achieve) resulting in the need for even more (expensive) power to inefficiently compensate, then condense and collect the water. These scenarios created multiple problems. The pipes quickly clogged; systems failed. And, for the short time they were operating, only ran during daylight hours. (Note: KESS operates 24/7).

Memo/Hint: The take away to be learned from water boiling isn’t the high joule input and temperatures required, rather, it is the continuous release of gas from solution, which unbinds/captures and frees water molecules from solution as the air rises from the liquid. KESS induces a volumetric “gas release” via much less costly means than the mega joules required for boiling water.

Lets’ look at how hurricanes (and KESS) operate. As with hurricanes, KESS doesn’t require high pressures… In fact, hurricanes and KESS operate efficiently at very low pressures, minus psi, not 1,000-2,000 psi. Likewise, KESS doesn’t require high temps, in fact KESS operates efficiently at around 90ºF, like every hurricane. And KESS, like hurricanes, are anything but static, like all other prior solar desalination systems.

In fact, KESS derives its WIPO World trademarked name in part, from a highly agitated, violent, environment, just like hurricanes, by introduction of kinetic mixing on several levels. As no/little pressure or mechanical torque/friction is introduced into the system (relative to RO), very little costly power is necessary or required.

Hurricanes condense water by cooling and other processes; so does KESS, but not by going up in elevation, but by increasing atmospheric pressure (again while simultaneously decreasing atmospheric pressure in the prior evaporation phase), and then going downward with the humidified air flow, utilizing the earth’s “universal” planet wide, below grade ambient temperature, to create temperature delta drops often in excess of 40º-50ºF, to cool the surface collection elements, necessary for condensation optimization.

So, if you look at the directions all the others have taken, and they have all gone in one direction, KESS goes in the exact opposite… When they all have Zigged, KESS has Zagged…. This is a brief summary, with many of the “classified” details obviously omitted, but in general, That’s KESS in a nutshell.

Floatable: KESS Cells are not necessarily land based as might be expected or presumed. It should be inserted here that KESS cells are designed and engineered to also float. Where protected bays, inlets, and harbors are the only space available, KESS cells can produce their fresh water, while floating.

KESS downsides: Nothing is perfect or free and this paper would be incomplete without mentioning both sides of the equation. While KESS will be much cheaper to install and operate, easier to use, far more energy efficient, and (most critically) - completely environmentally benign and Safe, KESS Cells are not the best solution in all situations.

  • KESS requires substantially more land area (3-4X) than RO, on a strictly - m^3 water produced / m^2 land area basis. So if land area is unavailable or at a high premium, KESS may not be the best solution. Piping the salt/saline water to inexpensive unused land for KESS to operate may offer the best compromise.
  • KESS still needs critical health minerals (mg+, etc.) re-added to the produced fresh water (like all distilled/bottled water) if used for long term drinking purposes.
  • KESS does not seamlessly work in VOC (volatile organic compound/high vapor pressure) contaminated water sources. IF necessary a VOC pre-treatment system is still required.
  • If the byproduct(s) is/are not a valuable /saleable commodity (like salt), then an approved storage site and transportation may be required.

That being said; in most situations KESS will likely be the only cost effective and viable alternative to RO today. In areas without access to substantial electrical power, or a continuous/affordable fuel source, KESS is potentially the only option. In relation to the environment and planet, the choice is clear.



For contact and more info: kesstechnologies.com


The Layman’s Guide to KESS®© Technologies
Optimized Modular Desalination Cells
Helping to solve the world’s fresh water shortage


Many have asked for a simple concise guide to complement the KESS Science and Patent White Papers, which focuses on the “how” and “why” questions, primarily utilizing the physics and the math.

While appropriate for some, most people aren’t really interested in formulas, variables, equations, etc. … just a simple quick explanation, “What is “It”, and How does “It” work? ...in straightforward simple to understand language.

So here goes.

What is KESS? KESS Cells represents the ability to affordably and economically extract fresh water from salt/brackish waters on a modularly based large scale, without RO membranes, motors, and pumps. At its lowest common denominator, KESS (Kinetic Energy Solar Still) captures and sums many small incremental improvements and discovered physics phenomena, to vastly increase the overall efficiency of desalination systems, while importantly, requiring only renewable energy (solar, wind, donkeys/camels walking in circles, etc.).

When people ask how KESS works (recently U.S. Patents and Intr’l WIPO Trademark published), our best reply, to date, has been to use an example most all of us can relate to. We offer that, generally speaking, KESS can be thought of as a “hurricane in a box”. Painting that “word picture” pretty much says it all.

Just like birds hinting to men, that flight Was possible, hurricanes can lead us to understand, and offer many hints for how to extract fresh drinkable water from the saline oceans/seas.

Most everyone knows that hurricanes are responsible for extracting and collecting massive amounts of fresh water, from the salt water oceans/seas, transporting and dumping (sometimes many feet of it), onto dry land. We’ve seen and experienced this first hand.

The planet is what scientists universally call an “open system”. That is, man can’t and doesn’t control any of these many processes… We can only observe, monitor, and record the results. How fast are the winds? What are the air and water temps? Where and how much water is collected? What is the air pressure? Etc.…

But, What If, what IF, in a fully enclosed “closed system” you could not only observe and monitor these variables, but control, optimize and maximize them at the same time as well? The standard accepted evaporation predication equation used for almost 60 years has only (6) variables. KESS not only controls these variables in a “box” (closed system), but adds another (10) previously undescribed and primarily unknown variables; while simultaneously optimizing and maximizing each. And when you sum all these small (and some large) incremental improvements, within a closed system, the resultant production gain is sizeable.

We KNOW (control and optimize) how the fresh water separates/evaporates from the salt water. We KNOW (control and optimize) where and when the water will condense and collect. We KNOW (and control) what the internal temps and pressures are. We KNOW (and maximize) what the evaporative surface areas are; (no longer squared on a level (X*Y), but rather nearly (X*Y) ^3)) inside the system. How? In some part, by optimizing the surface areas and controlled via programmed internal micro voltage powered PLC’s (automated computer controls), sensors and valves.

IF you understand and comply with the physics and what the math says MUST happen, the rest is seemingly straightforward, providing the appropriate are known and controlled.

The autonomous discrete and modular KESS Cell devices actually then become the derivate result of what the equations describe. In fact, you can see the parts in situ and their corresponding variables. It all makes perfect sense, once seen in the proper light.

Let’s take a step back and quickly look at the competing desalination technologies and how they compare to KESS. Reverse Osmosis (RO), standard and multi-effect Solar Desalination.

RO systems, universally, all share common theory and attributes. Push salt water through semi-permeable membranes that capture the salt ions, using much of this extracted water to backflush the salt out of the membranes, then dump the resulting (highly toxic concentrated) brine back into the source (sea, ocean, etc.), then repeat.

What pressures do RO and salt water RO (SWRO) systems require? Anywhere from 1,000 – 2,000 psi… Which is a LOT. This requires expensive, often replaced membranes, huge, expensive pumps, and even larger high wattage, power draining motors. And, afterwards you’re dumping more than half of the intake water right back into the ocean/sea, as a highly toxic, environmentally hazardous waste material concentrated brine that kills everything in huge “dead zones”. That’s RO (SWRO), in a nutshell. “Good, bad, and ugly.”

Note: It should be strongly emphasized here that KESS technology, (owing to the absence of foulable/clogged membranes), will be working extremely well in concert with, (not against) SWRO plants. How? KESS can easily accept the toxic effluent water from SWRO systems, and efficiently reduce it down to its baggable byproducts salt, and water. KESS can effortlessly go places where no RO system can.

Let’s now look at some of the earlier attempts at solar desalination. Many bright, learned, and well-funded people have failed in these directions. Ignoring (or perhaps unfamiliar with the physics and underlying principles). Earlier systems attempted to focus maximum solar energy (with large parabolic mirrors, etc.) onto static, horizontal, minimized, surface areas (long round pipe tubes, etc.)

As it was “known and assumed” that water needed to heated to the boiling point for steam to form, and desalination to occur, all of these systems required high temps (at 212º F/100ºC), which (according to the basic gas laws) necessarily resulted in high vapor pressures (which in actuality was acting in direct opposition to the evaporation they were trying to achieve) resulting in the need for even more (expensive) power to inefficiently compensate, then condense and collect the water. These scenarios created multiple problems. The pipes quickly clogged; systems failed. And, for the short time they were operating, only ran during daylight hours. (Note: KESS operates 24/7).

Memo/Hint: The take away to be learned from water boiling isn’t the high joule input and temperatures required, rather, it is the continuous release of gas from solution, which unbinds/captures and frees water molecules from solution as the air rises from the liquid. KESS induces a volumetric “gas release” via much less costly means than the mega joules required for boiling water.

Lets’ look at how hurricanes (and KESS) operate. As with hurricanes, KESS doesn’t require high pressures… In fact, hurricanes and KESS operate efficiently at very low pressures, minus psi, not 1,000-2,000 psi. Likewise, KESS doesn’t require high temps, in fact KESS operates efficiently at around 90ºF, like every hurricane. And KESS, like hurricanes, are anything but static, like all other prior solar desalination systems.

In fact, KESS derives its WIPO World trademarked name in part, from a highly agitated, violent, environment, just like hurricanes, by introduction of kinetic mixing on several levels. As no/little pressure or mechanical torque/friction is introduced into the system (relative to RO), very little costly power is necessary or required.

Hurricanes condense water by cooling and other processes; so does KESS, but not by going up in elevation, but by increasing atmospheric pressure (again while simultaneously decreasing atmospheric pressure in the prior evaporation phase), and then going downward with the humidified air flow, utilizing the earth’s “universal” planet wide, below grade ambient temperature, to create temperature delta drops often in excess of 40º-50ºF, to cool the surface collection elements, necessary for condensation optimization.

So, if you look at the directions all the others have taken, and they have all gone in one direction, KESS goes in the exact opposite… When they all have Zigged, KESS has Zagged…. This is a brief summary, with many of the “classified” details obviously omitted, but in general, That’s KESS in a nutshell.

Floatable: KESS Cells are not necessarily land based as might be expected or presumed. It should be inserted here that KESS cells are designed and engineered to also float. Where protected bays, inlets, and harbors are the only space available, KESS cells can produce their fresh water, while floating.

KESS downsides: Nothing is perfect or free and this paper would be incomplete without mentioning both sides of the equation. While KESS will be much cheaper to install and operate, easier to use, far more energy efficient, and (most critically) - completely environmentally benign and Safe, KESS Cells are not the best solution in all situations.

  • KESS requires substantially more land area (3-4X) than RO, on a strictly - m^3 water produced / m^2 land area basis. So if land area is unavailable or at a high premium, KESS may not be the best solution. Piping the salt/saline water to inexpensive unused land for KESS to operate may offer the best compromise.
  • KESS still needs critical health minerals (mg+, etc.) re-added to the produced fresh water (like all distilled/bottled water) if used for long term drinking purposes.
  • KESS does not seamlessly work in VOC (volatile organic compound/high vapor pressure) contaminated water sources. IF necessary a VOC pre-treatment system is still required.
  • If the byproduct(s) is/are not a valuable /saleable commodity (like salt), then an approved storage site and transportation may be required.

That being said; in most situations KESS will likely be the only cost effective and viable alternative to RO today. In areas without access to substantial electrical power, or a continuous/affordable fuel source, KESS is potentially the only option. In relation to the environment and planet, the choice is clear.



For contact and more info: kesstechnologies.com


תרגום לעברית
Hebrew Translation

מבוא לטכנולוגיית KESS®©
תאי התפלה מודולריים אופטימליים
"עוזרים לפתור את המחסור העולמי במי שתייה"


רבים ביקשו מסמך שיתאר באופן תמציתי ופשוט את ה-"מה" וה-"איך", כדי להשלים את המסמכים המדעיים והפטנט של KESS שמסבירים את העקרונות תוך שימוש בפיסיקה ובמתמטיקה.
אמנם זה מתאים לחלק מהקוראים, אך לרוב האנשים אין באמת עניין בנוסחאות, משתנים, משוואות וכו ', אלא רק בהסבר פשוט וקצר על "מה זה וכיצד זה עובד?" בשפה ישירה ופשוטה להבנה.
אז ננסה.
מה זה KESS? תאי KESS מציגים את היכולת להפיק מים מתוקים במחירים סבירים וביעילות כלכלית, ללא ממברנות אוסמוזה הפוכה (RO), מנועים ומשאבות. טכנולוגיית KESS (זיקוק קינטית באנרגיה סולארית - Kinetic Energy Solar Still) מבוססת על שילוב של הרבה שיפורים קטנים ותגליות פיזיקליות שמשפרים משמעותית את היעילות הכוללת של מערכות ההתפלה, תוך צריכת אנרגיה מתחדשת בלבד (שמש, רוח, חמורים/גמלים שהולכים במעגלים, וכו').
כאשר אנשים שואלים איך תאי KESS עובדים (לאחרונה פורסמו הפטנטים בארה"ב), התשובה הטובה ביותר שלנו, עד כה, היתה להשתמש בדוגמה שכולנו יכולים להתחבר אליה. אנו מציעים כי, באופן כללי, ניתן לראות את KESS כ-"הוריקן בקופסה". התיאור ה-"ציורי" הזה די מסכם את העניין.
בדיוק כמו שהציפורים הראו לאדם שאפשר לעוף, הוריקנים יכולים להוביל אותנו להבנה, ומציעים רמזים רבים, כיצד להפיק מים ראויים לשתייה מאוקיינוסים וימים מלוחים.
כולם יודעים שהוריקנים מפיקים ואוספים כמויות אדירות של מים מתוקים מאוקיינוסים וימים מלוחים, מובילים אותם וממטירים אותם (לפעמים הרבה מטרים מהם) על קרקע יבשה. ראינו וחווינו זאת ממקור ראשון.
מדענים מתייחסים לכוכב הלכת שלנו כ-"מערכת פתוחה". כלומר, האדם אינו יכול לשלוט ואינו שולט ברבים מתהליכים אלו - אנו יכולים רק להתבונן, לצפות, לנטר ולתעד את התוצאות. מהי מהירות הרוח? מהן טמפרטורות האוויר והמים? היכן וכמה מים נאספים? מה לחץ האוויר? וכו'.
אבל, מה אם, מה אם, בתוך "מערכת סגורה" לחלוטין היה ניתן לא רק להתבונן במשתנים אלה ולנטר אותם, אלא לשלוט בהם, לשפר ולהגדיל אותם באותה עת? במשוואת האידוי המקובלת, בה משתמשים כמעט 60 שנה, יש רק ששה (6) משתנים. תאי KESS לא רק שולטים במשתנים אלה ב-"קופסה" (מערכת סגורה), אלא אף מוסיפים עוד עשרה (10) שבעבר לא תוארו ובעיקר לא היו מוכרים, ובמקביל מבצעים אופטימיזציה ושיפור של כל אחד מהם. כאשר מסכמים את כל השיפורים הקטנים (וכמה גדולים) הללו, בתוך מערכת סגורה, השיפור שנוצר בתהליך ייצור המים משמעותי.
אנו יודעים (שולטים ומשפרים) כיצד המים המזוקקים מופרדים/מתאדים מהמים המלוחים. אנו יודעים (שולטים ומשפרים) היכן ומתי המים מתעבים ונאספים. אנחנו יודעים (ושולטים) מה מידות הטמפרטורות והלחצים הפנימיים יהיו. אנחנו יודעים (וממקסמים) מהם פני השטח המאדים בתוך המערכת (לא עוד ברמה של (X*Y), אלא ברמה של כמעט (X*Y)3 ). איך? בין השאר, על ידי אופטימיזציה של המשטחים ובקרה באמצעות מערכות בקרה פנימיות מתוכנתות (PLC - בקרות ממוחשבות אוטומטיות), חיישנים ושסתומים.
אם מבינים ומצייתים לפיזיקה ולמה שהמתמטיקה אומרת שחייב לקרות, השאר כנראה פשוט, בתנאי שהדרישות ידועות ומבוקרות.
תאי KESS האוטונומיים הבדידים והמודולריים מיישמים בפועל את התוצאה הנובעת ממה שהמשוואות מתארות. למעשה, ניתן לראות את החלקים בתוך המערכת ואת המשתנים המתאימים להם. כל זה הגיוני לגמרי, כשזה מוצג באופן הנכון.
בואו ניקח צעד אחורה ונבחן בזריזות את טכנולוגיות ההתפלה המתחרות בהשוואה ל-KESS: התפלה באוסמוזה הפוכה (RO), וסולארית סטנדרטית ורב-שלבית.
מערכות RO בעולם חולקות בסיס תיאורטי ומאפיינים משותפים: דוחפים את המים המלוחים דרך ממברנות חדירות למחצה כדי ללכוד את יוני המלח, משתמשים בחלק ניכר של המים שהופקו לשטיפת הממברנות מהמלח, ואז זורקים את התמלחת (הרעילה המרוכזת) בחזרה למקור המים (ים, אוקיינוס, וכו'), וחוזר חלילה.
באילו לחצים פועלות מערכות RO להתפלת מי ים (SWRO)? הן פועלות בטווח של פי 70-140 מהלחץ האטמוספרי - וזה הרבה. לחץ זה דורש החלפה תכופה של ממברנות יקרות, משאבות ענק יקרות ומנועים זוללי זרם חזק, ולאחר מכן זורקים כמעט ½ מהמים שנשאבו בחזרה לים כתמלחת מרוכזת ופסולת רעילה לסביבה שהורגת את כל מה שיש ב-"שטח מת" עצום. זה RO (SWRO), בקצור נמרץ - "טוב, רע ומכוער".
הערה: יש להדגיש כאן שהטכנולוגיה של KESS (בזכות היעדרן של ממברנות שעלולות להיסתם) תפעל טוב מאוד בתיאום עם (לא נגד) מתקני SWRO. איך? תאי KESS יכולים לקבל בקלות את התמלחת הרעילה ממערכות SWRO ולהפריד אותה ביעילות לתוצרי מלח, שניתן לאסוף בשקים, ולמים. תאי KESS יכולים ללא מאמץ להשיג את מה שמערכות RO לא יכולות.
הבה נתבונן כעת בכמה מהניסיונות המוקדמים להתפלה סולארית. אנשים רבים - מבריקים, מלומדים וממומנים היטב - נכשלו בכיוונים אלה, תוך התעלמות (או אולי חוסר היכרות) מהפיזיקה והעקרונות הבסיסיים. מערכות מוקדמות יותר ניסו למקד את מרב האנרגיה הסולארית (עם מראות פרבוליות גדולות וכד') על פני משטחים קבועים, אופקיים, מזעריים (צינורות עגולים ארוכים, וכד').
כיוון שההנחה הרווחת היתה שיש לחמם את המים לנקודת הרתיחה בה נוצר קיטור - והתפלה תתרחש, כל המערכות הללו דרשו טמפרטורות גבוהות (100°C), אשר (על פי חוקי הגזים הבסיסיים) יוצרים בהכרח לחץ אדים גבוה (שלמעשה פעל בניגוד ישיר לאידוי שניסו להשיג), כך שנדרשה אנרגיה (יקרה) רבה יותר לפצות בצורה לא יעילה, ואז לעבות ולאסוף את המים. תרחישים אלו יצרו בעיות רבות: הצינורות נסתמו במהירות, מערכות כשלו וזאת במשך הזמן הקצר בו פעלו - רק בשעות היום (הערה: KESS פועלת 24/7).
הבהרה: הלקח הנלמד מהרתחת מים אינו צריכת האנרגיה הגבוהה והטמפרטורות הנדרשות, אלא פליטה מתמשכת של אדים מהתמיסה, אשר משחררת מולקולות מים כשאוויר עולה מהנוזל. תאי KESS יוצרים "שחרור גז" נפחי באמצעים הרבה פחות יקרים מהאנרגיות העצומות שדרושות להרתחות מים.
בואו נראה איך הוריקנים (ותאי KESS) פועלים. כמו בהוריקנים, תאי KESS אינם דורשים לחצים גבוהים. למעשה, הוריקנים ותאי KESS פועלים ביעילות בלחצים נמוכים מאוד, תת-אטמוספריים, לא 70-140 אטמוספירות. כמו כן, תאי KESS אינם דורשים טמפרטורות גבוהות - למעשה תאי KESS פועלים ביעילות בסביבות 32°C, כמו כל הוריקן, ותאי KESS, כמו הוריקנים, הם ממש לא סטאטיים, להבדיל מכל מערכות ההתפלה הסולארית הקודמות.
למעשה, טכנולוגיית KESS שאבה בחלקו את השם המסחרי שלה, שרשום ב-WIPO (הארגון העולמי לקניין רוחני), מסביבה סוערת ואלימה, כמו הוריקנים, על ידי שילוב של ערבוב קינטי במספר רמות. מכיוון שנעשה שימוש במערכת בלחץ קטן/אפסי ומעט או אפס מומנט/חיכוך מכני (יחסית ל-RO), נחוצה ונדרשת רק מעט אנרגיה יקרה.
הוריקנים מעבים מים על ידי קירור ותהליכים אחרים; כך גם תאי KESS, אך לא על ידי עלייה לגובה, אלא על ידי הגברת הלחץ האטמוספרי (תוך הפחתה בו-זמנית של הלחץ האטמוספרי בשלב האידוי), ולאחר מכן ירידה עם זרם האוויר הלח, תוך שימוש בטמפרטורת הסביבה ה-"אוניברסלית" הנמוכה של כדור הארץ, כדי ליצור ירידות טמפרטורה חדות, לעתים קרובות של 22-28°C, לקירור מרכיבי משטח האיסוף, כנדרש לאופטימיזציה של העיבוי.
אם כך, כאשר בוחנים את הכיוונים שכל האחרים הלכו בהם, והם הלכו כולם בכיוון אחד, טכנולוגיית KESS הולכת בדיוק לכיוון הנגדי - כשכולם הולכים ימינה, KESS הולכים שמאלה, ולהיפך. זהו סיכום קצר, בו פרטים "מסווגים" רבים כמובן הושמטו, אבל באופן כללי, זהו, בקיצור, KESS.
ציפה: תאי KESS אינם בהכרח על הקרקע, כפי שמקובל לצפות או לשער. נציין כאן שתאי KESS מתוכננים ומהונדסים גם לצוף. כאשר מפרצים מוגנים, מפרצונים ונמלים הם המקום היחיד הזמין, תאי KESS יכולים לייצר מים טהורים בעודם צפים.
מגבלות: שום דבר אינו מושלם או בחינם, ומסמך זה יהיה לא שלם בלי להזכיר את שני הצדדים של המשוואה. בעוד תאי KESS הרבה יותר זולים להתקנה ולהפעלה, קלים יותר לשימוש, הרבה יותר יעילים אנרגטית, ו-(הכי חשוב)-לחלוטין ידידותיים לסביבה, יש מצבים בהם תאי KESS אינם הפתרון הטוב ביותר:

  • תאי KESS דורשים שטח משמעותית גדול יותר (פי 3-4) מ-RO, על בסיס יחס מ"ק מופק / מ"ר שטח. אם שטח אינו זמין או יקר מאוד, תאי KESS עלולים לא להיות הפתרון הטוב ביותר.

  • תאי KESS עדיין זקוקים להחזרה של מינרלים בריאותיים קריטיים (mg+, וכו') למים המופקים (כמו כל מים מזוקקים/מבוקבוקים) אם משתמשים בהם למטרות שתייה לאורך זמן.

  • תאי KESS אינם פועלים היטב במקורות מים שמזוהמים ב-VOC (volatile organic compound / לחץ אדים גבוה). אם הכרחי להתפיל מים מזוהמים ב-VOC, נדרשת מערכת לטיפול קדם ב-VOC.

  • אם תוצרי הלוואי אינם בעלי ערך מסחרי/סחירים (להבדיל ממלח), ייתכן שיהיה צורך באתר אחסון מאושר ובהובלה.

  • עם זאת; ברוב המקרים תאי KESS צפויים להיות החלופה הריאלית היחידה למערכות RO מבחינת עלות תועלת. באזורים בהם אין גישה למקור חשמל בעל ספיקה גבוהה או מקור דלק קבוע/זול, תאי KESS הם כנראה החלופה היחידה. ביחס לסביבה ולכדור הארץ, הבחירה ברורה.
    ליצירת קשר ולמידע נוסף: kesstechnologies.com

    מבוא לטכנולוגיית KESS®©
    תאי התפלה מודולריים אופטימליים
    "עוזרים לפתור את המחסור העולמי במי שתייה"


    רבים ביקשו מסמך שיתאר באופן תמציתי ופשוט את ה-"מה" וה-"איך", כדי להשלים את המסמכים המדעיים והפטנט של KESS שמסבירים את העקרונות תוך שימוש בפיסיקה ובמתמטיקה.
    אמנם זה מתאים לחלק מהקוראים, אך לרוב האנשים אין באמת עניין בנוסחאות, משתנים, משוואות וכו ', אלא רק בהסבר פשוט וקצר על "מה זה וכיצד זה עובד?" בשפה ישירה ופשוטה להבנה.
    אז ננסה.
    מה זה KESS? תאי KESS מציגים את היכולת להפיק מים מתוקים במחירים סבירים וביעילות כלכלית, ללא ממברנות אוסמוזה הפוכה (RO), מנועים ומשאבות. טכנולוגיית KESS (זיקוק קינטית באנרגיה סולארית - Kinetic Energy Solar Still) מבוססת על שילוב של הרבה שיפורים קטנים ותגליות פיזיקליות שמשפרים משמעותית את היעילות הכוללת של מערכות ההתפלה, תוך צריכת אנרגיה מתחדשת בלבד (שמש, רוח, חמורים/גמלים שהולכים במעגלים, וכו').
    כאשר אנשים שואלים איך תאי KESS עובדים (לאחרונה פורסמו הפטנטים בארה"ב), התשובה הטובה ביותר שלנו, עד כה, היתה להשתמש בדוגמה שכולנו יכולים להתחבר אליה. אנו מציעים כי, באופן כללי, ניתן לראות את KESS כ-"הוריקן בקופסה". התיאור ה-"ציורי" הזה די מסכם את העניין.
    בדיוק כמו שהציפורים הראו לאדם שאפשר לעוף, הוריקנים יכולים להוביל אותנו להבנה, ומציעים רמזים רבים, כיצד להפיק מים ראויים לשתייה מאוקיינוסים וימים מלוחים.
    כולם יודעים שהוריקנים מפיקים ואוספים כמויות אדירות של מים מתוקים מאוקיינוסים וימים מלוחים, מובילים אותם וממטירים אותם (לפעמים הרבה מטרים מהם) על קרקע יבשה. ראינו וחווינו זאת ממקור ראשון.
    מדענים מתייחסים לכוכב הלכת שלנו כ-"מערכת פתוחה". כלומר, האדם אינו יכול לשלוט ואינו שולט ברבים מתהליכים אלו - אנו יכולים רק להתבונן, לצפות, לנטר ולתעד את התוצאות. מהי מהירות הרוח? מהן טמפרטורות האוויר והמים? היכן וכמה מים נאספים? מה לחץ האוויר? וכו'.
    אבל, מה אם, מה אם, בתוך "מערכת סגורה" לחלוטין היה ניתן לא רק להתבונן במשתנים אלה ולנטר אותם, אלא לשלוט בהם, לשפר ולהגדיל אותם באותה עת? במשוואת האידוי המקובלת, בה משתמשים כמעט 60 שנה, יש רק ששה (6) משתנים. תאי KESS לא רק שולטים במשתנים אלה ב-"קופסה" (מערכת סגורה), אלא אף מוסיפים עוד עשרה (10) שבעבר לא תוארו ובעיקר לא היו מוכרים, ובמקביל מבצעים אופטימיזציה ושיפור של כל אחד מהם. כאשר מסכמים את כל השיפורים הקטנים (וכמה גדולים) הללו, בתוך מערכת סגורה, השיפור שנוצר בתהליך ייצור המים משמעותי.
    אנו יודעים (שולטים ומשפרים) כיצד המים המזוקקים מופרדים/מתאדים מהמים המלוחים. אנו יודעים (שולטים ומשפרים) היכן ומתי המים מתעבים ונאספים. אנחנו יודעים (ושולטים) מה מידות הטמפרטורות והלחצים הפנימיים יהיו. אנחנו יודעים (וממקסמים) מהם פני השטח המאדים בתוך המערכת (לא עוד ברמה של (X*Y), אלא ברמה של כמעט (X*Y)3 ). איך? בין השאר, על ידי אופטימיזציה של המשטחים ובקרה באמצעות מערכות בקרה פנימיות מתוכנתות (PLC - בקרות ממוחשבות אוטומטיות), חיישנים ושסתומים.
    אם מבינים ומצייתים לפיזיקה ולמה שהמתמטיקה אומרת שחייב לקרות, השאר כנראה פשוט, בתנאי שהדרישות ידועות ומבוקרות.
    תאי KESS האוטונומיים הבדידים והמודולריים מיישמים בפועל את התוצאה הנובעת ממה שהמשוואות מתארות. למעשה, ניתן לראות את החלקים בתוך המערכת ואת המשתנים המתאימים להם. כל זה הגיוני לגמרי, כשזה מוצג באופן הנכון.
    בואו ניקח צעד אחורה ונבחן בזריזות את טכנולוגיות ההתפלה המתחרות בהשוואה ל-KESS: התפלה באוסמוזה הפוכה (RO), וסולארית סטנדרטית ורב-שלבית.
    מערכות RO בעולם חולקות בסיס תיאורטי ומאפיינים משותפים: דוחפים את המים המלוחים דרך ממברנות חדירות למחצה כדי ללכוד את יוני המלח, משתמשים בחלק ניכר של המים שהופקו לשטיפת הממברנות מהמלח, ואז זורקים את התמלחת (הרעילה המרוכזת) בחזרה למקור המים (ים, אוקיינוס, וכו'), וחוזר חלילה.
    באילו לחצים פועלות מערכות RO להתפלת מי ים (SWRO)? הן פועלות בטווח של פי 70-140 מהלחץ האטמוספרי - וזה הרבה. לחץ זה דורש החלפה תכופה של ממברנות יקרות, משאבות ענק יקרות ומנועים זוללי זרם חזק, ולאחר מכן זורקים כמעט ½ מהמים שנשאבו בחזרה לים כתמלחת מרוכזת ופסולת רעילה לסביבה שהורגת את כל מה שיש ב-"שטח מת" עצום. זה RO (SWRO), בקצור נמרץ - "טוב, רע ומכוער".
    הערה: יש להדגיש כאן שהטכנולוגיה של KESS (בזכות היעדרן של ממברנות שעלולות להיסתם) תפעל טוב מאוד בתיאום עם (לא נגד) מתקני SWRO. איך? תאי KESS יכולים לקבל בקלות את התמלחת הרעילה ממערכות SWRO ולהפריד אותה ביעילות לתוצרי מלח, שניתן לאסוף בשקים, ולמים. תאי KESS יכולים ללא מאמץ להשיג את מה שמערכות RO לא יכולות.
    הבה נתבונן כעת בכמה מהניסיונות המוקדמים להתפלה סולארית. אנשים רבים - מבריקים, מלומדים וממומנים היטב - נכשלו בכיוונים אלה, תוך התעלמות (או אולי חוסר היכרות) מהפיזיקה והעקרונות הבסיסיים. מערכות מוקדמות יותר ניסו למקד את מרב האנרגיה הסולארית (עם מראות פרבוליות גדולות וכד') על פני משטחים קבועים, אופקיים, מזעריים (צינורות עגולים ארוכים, וכד').
    כיוון שההנחה הרווחת היתה שיש לחמם את המים לנקודת הרתיחה בה נוצר קיטור - והתפלה תתרחש, כל המערכות הללו דרשו טמפרטורות גבוהות (100°C), אשר (על פי חוקי הגזים הבסיסיים) יוצרים בהכרח לחץ אדים גבוה (שלמעשה פעל בניגוד ישיר לאידוי שניסו להשיג), כך שנדרשה אנרגיה (יקרה) רבה יותר לפצות בצורה לא יעילה, ואז לעבות ולאסוף את המים. תרחישים אלו יצרו בעיות רבות: הצינורות נסתמו במהירות, מערכות כשלו וזאת במשך הזמן הקצר בו פעלו - רק בשעות היום (הערה: KESS פועלת 24/7).
    הבהרה: הלקח הנלמד מהרתחת מים אינו צריכת האנרגיה הגבוהה והטמפרטורות הנדרשות, אלא פליטה מתמשכת של אדים מהתמיסה, אשר משחררת מולקולות מים כשאוויר עולה מהנוזל. תאי KESS יוצרים "שחרור גז" נפחי באמצעים הרבה פחות יקרים מהאנרגיות העצומות שדרושות להרתחות מים.
    בואו נראה איך הוריקנים (ותאי KESS) פועלים. כמו בהוריקנים, תאי KESS אינם דורשים לחצים גבוהים. למעשה, הוריקנים ותאי KESS פועלים ביעילות בלחצים נמוכים מאוד, תת-אטמוספריים, לא 70-140 אטמוספירות. כמו כן, תאי KESS אינם דורשים טמפרטורות גבוהות - למעשה תאי KESS פועלים ביעילות בסביבות 32°C, כמו כל הוריקן, ותאי KESS, כמו הוריקנים, הם ממש לא סטאטיים, להבדיל מכל מערכות ההתפלה הסולארית הקודמות.
    למעשה, טכנולוגיית KESS שאבה בחלקו את השם המסחרי שלה, שרשום ב-WIPO (הארגון העולמי לקניין רוחני), מסביבה סוערת ואלימה, כמו הוריקנים, על ידי שילוב של ערבוב קינטי במספר רמות. מכיוון שנעשה שימוש במערכת בלחץ קטן/אפסי ומעט או אפס מומנט/חיכוך מכני (יחסית ל-RO), נחוצה ונדרשת רק מעט אנרגיה יקרה.
    הוריקנים מעבים מים על ידי קירור ותהליכים אחרים; כך גם תאי KESS, אך לא על ידי עלייה לגובה, אלא על ידי הגברת הלחץ האטמוספרי (תוך הפחתה בו-זמנית של הלחץ האטמוספרי בשלב האידוי), ולאחר מכן ירידה עם זרם האוויר הלח, תוך שימוש בטמפרטורת הסביבה ה-"אוניברסלית" הנמוכה של כדור הארץ, כדי ליצור ירידות טמפרטורה חדות, לעתים קרובות של 22-28°C, לקירור מרכיבי משטח האיסוף, כנדרש לאופטימיזציה של העיבוי.
    אם כך, כאשר בוחנים את הכיוונים שכל האחרים הלכו בהם, והם הלכו כולם בכיוון אחד, טכנולוגיית KESS הולכת בדיוק לכיוון הנגדי - כשכולם הולכים ימינה, KESS הולכים שמאלה, ולהיפך. זהו סיכום קצר, בו פרטים "מסווגים" רבים כמובן הושמטו, אבל באופן כללי, זהו, בקיצור, KESS.
    ציפה: תאי KESS אינם בהכרח על הקרקע, כפי שמקובל לצפות או לשער. נציין כאן שתאי KESS מתוכננים ומהונדסים גם לצוף. כאשר מפרצים מוגנים, מפרצונים ונמלים הם המקום היחיד הזמין, תאי KESS יכולים לייצר מים טהורים בעודם צפים.
    מגבלות: שום דבר אינו מושלם או בחינם, ומסמך זה יהיה לא שלם בלי להזכיר את שני הצדדים של המשוואה. בעוד תאי KESS הרבה יותר זולים להתקנה ולהפעלה, קלים יותר לשימוש, הרבה יותר יעילים אנרגטית, ו-(הכי חשוב)-לחלוטין ידידותיים לסביבה, יש מצבים בהם תאי KESS אינם הפתרון הטוב ביותר:

  • תאי KESS דורשים שטח משמעותית גדול יותר (פי 3-4) מ-RO, על בסיס יחס מ"ק מופק / מ"ר שטח. אם שטח אינו זמין או יקר מאוד, תאי KESS עלולים לא להיות הפתרון הטוב ביותר.

  • תאי KESS עדיין זקוקים להחזרה של מינרלים בריאותיים קריטיים (mg+, וכו') למים המופקים (כמו כל מים מזוקקים/מבוקבוקים) אם משתמשים בהם למטרות שתייה לאורך זמן.

  • תאי KESS אינם פועלים היטב במקורות מים שמזוהמים ב-VOC (volatile organic compound / לחץ אדים גבוה). אם הכרחי להתפיל מים מזוהמים ב-VOC, נדרשת מערכת לטיפול קדם ב-VOC.

  • אם תוצרי הלוואי אינם בעלי ערך מסחרי/סחירים (להבדיל ממלח), ייתכן שיהיה צורך באתר אחסון מאושר ובהובלה.

  • עם זאת; ברוב המקרים תאי KESS צפויים להיות החלופה הריאלית היחידה למערכות RO מבחינת עלות תועלת. באזורים בהם אין גישה למקור חשמל בעל ספיקה גבוהה או מקור דלק קבוע/זול, תאי KESS הם כנראה החלופה היחידה. ביחס לסביבה ולכדור הארץ, הבחירה ברורה.
    ליצירת קשר ולמידע נוסף: kesstechnologies.com

    Salt Water
    Reverse Osmosis Systems
    (SWRO)

    SWRO is very expensive to build, operate and maintain, is energy inefficient, implements expensive SWRO membranes, requires high energy pressure pumps and returns more than 50% of a highly toxic, environmentally hazardous waste material back to the water source.

    Kinetic Energy Solar Still
    (KESS®©)

    KESS is a revolutionary new scaleable, water desalination system which operates on renewable energy sources, is very energy efficient, requires minimal maintenance, reduces waste, has a very small carbon footprint, has no membranes to change and no water returns to the source: salt is the only by-product.

    Salt Water
    Reverse Osmosis Systems
    (SWRO)

    SWRO is very expensive to build, operate and maintain, is energy inefficient, implements expensive SWRO membranes, requires high energy pressure pumps and returns more than 50% of a highly toxic, environmentally hazardous waste material back to the water source.


    Kinetic Energy Solar Still
    (KESS®©)

    KESS is a revolutionary new scaleable, water desalination system which operates on renewable energy sources, is very energy efficient, requires minimal maintenance, reduces waste, has a very small carbon footprint, has no membranes to change and no water returns to the source: salt is the only by-product.
    KESS technology will work and play well with existing SWRO facilities to mitigate the adverse environmental impact of SWRO’s return waste toxic brine.

    It’s no secret that Reverse Osmosis salt water desalination (SWRO) has severe environmental impact issues. Whole geographic marine regions are suffering greatly, or have already died from the highly toxic saline brine that has/is back-washed into the seas and oceans. Marine life and irreplaceable coral reefs have been killed. Environmental groups worldwide stand firmly united against SWRO.

    To this end, KESS technology will work in tandem, extremely well with, SWRO plants worldwide. By reducing the return volume of SWRO toxic brine, KESS will work in concert with, not adversarially against, existing SWRO technology.

    As KESS technology has no membranes to plug and foul, nor high pressure pumps to fail, nor expensive electrical utilities (with exceptionally high carbon footprint) to drain; KESS Technology easily steps in and accepts the high saline brine direct from SWRO plants, and reduces it to bag-able salt, and fresh water. The remaining salable salt will either be made available to claim, will be hauled away by outside contracted services to process the material for valuable minerals, or stored at approved sites.

    So, whether wholly renewable powered discrete KESS cells are installed independently to desalinate salt and brackish water, or KESS cells are amended to existing facilities as a “plug ‘n play” SWRO brine reduction solution, KESS technology has a role to play in protecting the environment.

    Brine reduction greatly mitigates the adverse impact that SWRO has in every location, planet wide.
    KESS technology will work and play well with existing SWRO facilities to mitigate the adverse environmental impact of SWRO’s return waste toxic brine.

    It’s no secret that Reverse Osmosis salt water desalination (SWRO) has severe environmental impact issues. Whole geographic marine regions are suffering greatly, or have already died from the highly toxic saline brine that has/is back-washed into the seas and oceans. Marine life and irreplaceable coral reefs have been killed. Environmental groups worldwide stand firmly united against SWRO.

    To this end, KESS technology will work in tandem, extremely well with, SWRO plants worldwide. By reducing the return volume of SWRO toxic brine, KESS will work in concert with, not adversarially against, existing SWRO technology.

    As KESS technology has no membranes to plug and foul, nor high pressure pumps to fail, nor expensive electrical utilities (with exceptionally high carbon footprint) to drain; KESS Technology easily steps in and accepts the high saline brine direct from SWRO plants, and reduces it to bag-able salt, and fresh water. The remaining salable salt will either be made available to claim, will be hauled away by outside contracted services to process the material for valuable minerals, or stored at approved sites.

    So, whether wholly renewable powered discrete KESS cells are installed independently to desalinate salt and brackish water, or KESS cells are amended to existing facilities as a “plug ‘n play” SWRO brine reduction solution, KESS technology has a role to play in protecting the environment.

    Brine reduction greatly mitigates the adverse impact that SWRO has in every location, planet wide.

    White Papers:

    Desalination: How the Rules Have Changed.

     

    White Paper on the Penman-Shuttleworth Equation and the Derived Accelerated Evaporation-Condensation/Collection Devices and their Environmental Impact Assessment for 2018.
     
    Introduction:
     
    This paper introduces a new approach to salt/brackish water desalination and water purification. A new system, KESS®©, incorporates a unique large scale distillation hardware design which effectively and efficiently can use only renewable energy as the power source.  Patent and Trademarks were recently “allowed” and are soon to be issued by the USPTO and WIPO government offices.  International patents are being filed soon.
     
    Abstract:
     
    Production of clean fresh water is of critical importance planet wide, particularly between 45 deg. +/- of the equator where water sources are already severely depleted, and some will soon vanish altogether.  As the demand for fresh water increases with the world’s population, and the supply of fresh water decreases due to weather conditions, the challenges to produce adequate amounts of fresh water are increasing daily.  Current solar desalination systems produce fresh water, but inefficiently and very slowly. Salt Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) systems produce fresh water, but expensively and with major negative ecological impact.
    Contained herein is a greatly improved solar desalination system that overcomes physical and chemical water production barriers and limits, utilizing 100% renewable solar and/or wind derived kinetic energy.  The net effects substantially increase both the evaporation and the recovery/condensation capture rates vs. the accepted standard pan evaporation rate.  Several scalable embodiments/configurations are presented, representing differences in production, usage and transportation/delivery logistics.

    Desalination: How the Rules Have Changed.

     

    White Paper on the Penman-Shuttleworth Equation and the Derived Accelerated Evaporation-Condensation/Collection Devices and their Environmental Impact Assessment for 2018.
     
    Introduction:
     
    This paper introduces a new approach to salt/brackish water desalination and water purification. A new system, KESS®©, incorporates a unique large scale distillation hardware design which effectively and efficiently can use only renewable energy as the power source.  Patent and Trademarks were recently “allowed” and are soon to be issued by the USPTO and WIPO government offices.  International patents are being filed soon.
     
    Abstract:
     
    Production of clean fresh water is of critical importance planet wide, particularly between 45 deg. +/- of the equator where water sources are already severely depleted, and some will soon vanish altogether.  As the demand for fresh water increases with the world’s population, and the supply of fresh water decreases due to weather conditions, the challenges to produce adequate amounts of fresh water are increasing daily.  Current solar desalination systems produce fresh water, but inefficiently and very slowly. Salt Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) systems produce fresh water, but expensively and with major negative ecological impact.
    Contained herein is a greatly improved solar desalination system that overcomes physical and chemical water production barriers and limits, utilizing 100% renewable solar and/or wind derived kinetic energy.  The net effects substantially increase both the evaporation and the recovery/condensation capture rates vs. the accepted standard pan evaporation rate.  Several scalable embodiments/configurations are presented, representing differences in production, usage and transportation/delivery logistics.

    page1image1821984
    December 3, 2018
    Via Email
    Mark D. Goodley KESS Technologies, Inc. 4272 Dant Blvd. Reno, NV 89509
    Re: Overview of Allowed U.S. Patent Application No. 15/879,695, Entitled “System and Method for Evaporation and Collection of Liquids”
    Dear Mark:
    KESS Technologies, Inc. (“KESS”) has asked Wilmer, Cutler, Pickering, Hale, and Dorr LLP (“WilmerHale”) to provide an overview of the subject matter of allowed U.S. Patent Application No. 15/879,695 (“the ‘695 application”), entitled “System and Method for Evaporation and Collection of Liquids,” and the legal requirements for obtaining an issued patent from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”).
    In conducting our analysis, we have reviewed the ‘695 application as filed with the USPTO, a non-final Office Action from the USPTO dated May 10, 2018, concerning the ‘695 application, Applicant’s Reply to the non-final Office Action filed on July 9, 2018, the Notice of Allowance and Fee(s) Due from the USPTO for the ‘695 application, and the allowed claims of the ‘695 application. Our overview of the legal standards for obtaining a U.S. patent and the allowed ‘695 application follows.
    I. SUMMARY
    A patent gives the patentee the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, offering to sell and/or importing subject matter that falls within the scope of the patented claims. See 35 U.S.C. § 154(a)(1). The ‘695 application is directed to systems, methods, and devices for the efficient and increased rate of evaporation and collection of liquids, including desalination of water.
    Following a relatively short period of prosecution, the USPTO determined that the pending claims of the ‘695 application satisfy the statutory requirements for patentability. This determination from the USPTO indicates that the claimed subject matter of the allowed ‘695 patent application has utility and is novel and nonobvious over the prior art. The claims of a patent issued by the USPTO are presumed to be legally valid. See 35 U.S.C. § 282.
    page1image3694144 page1image849824
    page1image1821984
    December 3, 2018
    Via Email
    Mark D. Goodley KESS Technologies, Inc. 4272 Dant Blvd. Reno, NV 89509
    Re: Overview of Allowed U.S. Patent Application No. 15/879,695, Entitled “System and Method for Evaporation and Collection of Liquids”
    Dear Mark:
    KESS Technologies, Inc. (“KESS”) has asked Wilmer, Cutler, Pickering, Hale, and Dorr LLP (“WilmerHale”) to provide an overview of the subject matter of allowed U.S. Patent Application No. 15/879,695 (“the ‘695 application”), entitled “System and Method for Evaporation and Collection of Liquids,” and the legal requirements for obtaining an issued patent from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”).
    In conducting our analysis, we have reviewed the ‘695 application as filed with the USPTO, a non-final Office Action from the USPTO dated May 10, 2018, concerning the ‘695 application, Applicant’s Reply to the non-final Office Action filed on July 9, 2018, the Notice of Allowance and Fee(s) Due from the USPTO for the ‘695 application, and the allowed claims of the ‘695 application. Our overview of the legal standards for obtaining a U.S. patent and the allowed ‘695 application follows.
    I. SUMMARY
    A patent gives the patentee the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, offering to sell and/or importing subject matter that falls within the scope of the patented claims. See 35 U.S.C. § 154(a)(1). The ‘695 application is directed to systems, methods, and devices for the efficient and increased rate of evaporation and collection of liquids, including desalination of water.
    Following a relatively short period of prosecution, the USPTO determined that the pending claims of the ‘695 application satisfy the statutory requirements for patentability. This determination from the USPTO indicates that the claimed subject matter of the allowed ‘695 patent application has utility and is novel and nonobvious over the prior art. The claims of a patent issued by the USPTO are presumed to be legally valid. See 35 U.S.C. § 282.
    page1image3694144 page1image849824

    Business Plan:

    KESS® Technologies Inc. Business Plan Narrative




    I. Why KESS?


    KESS Technologies, Inc. is a multi-discipline, integrative, high technology company offering several new innovative product lines.

    KESS was recently awarded a patent for fresh water generation systems which efficiently, economically, reliably and safely extracts large amounts of fresh clean water from salt/brackish/ocean /polluted waters,
    without the excessive costs and amounts of power normally associated with desalination and water purification, a first, never before achieved.

    Importantly, KESS Cells also have the inherent capabilities to significantly mitigate the severe environmental impact issues of all SWRO (SeaWater Reverse Osmosis) systems; i.e., The discharge brine (backflush) that is polluting the world’s seas and oceans.

    While the focus will always remain producing fresh water without VAC (or other fuel burning sourced power), under the KESS corporate umbrella, there are several closely related satellite and component profit center divisions; which are summarized herein, though not yet represented in the summary P&L below.

    Due to the patented innovation and integration of technologies (physics, chemistry, electronics, software, tight tolerance mechanics, transducer/sensors), KESS Cells, with tight tolerance components, while still experimental, are expected to operate so efficiently and effectively, that the entire system, no matter the size, will operate independently and discretely only on renewable power sources, including, but not limited to, wind, solar, pedal power, etc.

    We refer to the speed and efficiency of this conversion process as HASE© (Hyper Accelerated Solar Evaporation). Small improvements in many areas multiplying into overall sizeable gains.

    In comparison to current leading technology, SWRO, there are no expensive high wattage motors, high pressure pumps, or semipermeable filters to change out or dispose of. Conversely, KESS operates at relatively low heat and low pressure differentials.

    And as opposed to SWRO, the only byproduct extracted from KESS, in most cases, is dry salable table salt. (Though with some brackish waters there may be other less desirable byproducts which will need to be disposed).

    In contrast with KESS systems, current SWRO systems are hundreds to thousands of times more expensive to build, operate, fuel and maintain.

    SWRO systems require massive amounts of prohibitively expensive energy to operate. In some cases, these operating costs and vast amounts of energy required to keep a SWRO system operating are the reasons they are not employed.

    For example, a large SWRO system (50M/gal (180K^3m) /day), with the power plant necessary to operate the plant, typically costs in the neighborhood of $2B USD to build and $250M a year in energy costs alone to operate !

    In addition to the excessive energy costs, SWRO systems require a lot of maintenance. The expensive SWRO filters need to be changed out; typically every few months. SWRO operates with high pressure (1,000-2,000 psi) and high temperature, often resulting in pump failures. Again, KESS is neither constrained nor impacted by any of these issues.

    It’s particularly important to note that unlike KESS, no SWRO system in the world can reduce their continuous waste stream to a dry, easily transportable byproduct, which is both their environmental curse, and KESS’s opportunity.

    KESS technology represents the potential for a true and very rare paradigm shift on the planet.

    In the creation of fresh water is a unique opportunity to do something truly important on the earth for all of its inhabitants.

    ***

    As you may be aware, there is a critical and growing fresh water shortage on earth. Within 40-45 degrees of the equator, we are either already out of water, or soon will be.

    This is a planetary problem that began about 10,000 years ago with/at the end of the last ice age. The planetary fresh water quantity/loss has been on a downward spiral trajectory ever since. It’s not going to change any time soon.

    We’re not suggesting you should forget about what you hear about “global warming”. Yet the facts are that the problem started a long time ago and have little or nothing to do with us being here.

    Till now, the choices and options have not been good.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) states that roughly 2/3’s of all illnesses are water related.

    Over 2 billion people on the earth today drink polluted, infectious water every day, if they can find water at all, as many regions have very little to no fresh water at all.

    There’s plenty of salt water, (It’s estimated that 75% of the world’s population lives within 100 miles of an ocean/sea) but many do not have a drop to drink, wash, irrigate crops, etc. The lack of fresh water is a critical human, animal and agricultural emergency.

    Water is truly
    not what many business marketers universally refer to as a “space”. This is a truly offensive statement to us.

    Water is much, much more. Water is life. We are passionate about providing fresh water, at absolutely minimal cost, to the planet.

    As a planetary people, we needed to find a way to solve the catastrophic water shortage problem. And we have.


    ***

    We Must change this paradigm problem. We can change this. We Will change this.


    II. Where We Are Currently.

    • The initial (of several KESS patents was filed in June 2018. In record time, the USPTO allowed all the claims in the KESS design and utility patent and it was published recently in mid-December 2018. The message was crystal clear, “There is a huge humanitarian need for this technology, get going.” We have many more patents to go.

    • The KESS trademark has been universally registered and accepted.

    • Through close affiliations with other patent holders and KESS principle patent holders, our patents for Wind Turbines (to power KESS Cells) were allowed and published in 2016-17. A patent for low cost solar cell optimization was likewise allowed.

    • So, in terms of securing the necessary IP, we are ready to go. We have a clear, straight path. We know what we need to do, where we need to go, and how to get there. There are always questions, problems, and development issues, and through our involvement in various successful ventures, we have a proven track record of solving them.

    • Initial working prototypes are designed, manufactured, and tested. (See below). Many sub-systems, parts, assemblies, concepts are already conceived, designed and tested. Many more to follow.

    • The last year has seen a tremendous “evolution” and improvements to design, utility, and abilities. While initially the large KESS cells were designed to be made from concrete, block, as permanent infrastructure, and constructed individually at perhaps 1 per week. The current designs can be mass produced at many per hour.

    • The current designs are now also floatable (for areas with restricted land availability or high cost.)

    • Not only are KESS cells now able to be mass produced on a large scale, but they are much less expensive, shippable, containerized(able), and able to quickly reach anywhere in the world.

    • USA and Israeli corporations formed. VAT in Israel started. 15% Employee stock plan drawn and adopted.

    • KESStechnologies.com Website up and running; planned improvements to come.


    III. Where We are Going


    We have necessarily been operating on a minimal budget for such an extraordinarily large project. There have been the normal legal expenses, operating expenses, production expenses, travel expenses, etc.

    Our patent and trademark applications and business creation have required a good portion of the investment money we have received thus far, with much farther to go.

    We attempted to make small prototype samples using 3D printing and fiberglass construction. Though we ultimately had some success with testing some aspects of KESS, neither of the techniques proved adequate to fully test and optimize all of the aspects of the KESS system.

    We have determined that high precision injection and rotomolded parts will be necessary to test and optimize the systems. The molds, tooling and components are expensive, however they are necessary to maintain the tolerances needed for optimization. It is also necessary to have a team for assembly, testing and shipping these systems.

    It should be noted that the molds and tooling mentioned above, will be used to make production systems going forward. Therefore the expense of these items is not lost on only prototypes.

    Three sizes of KESS “cells” are designed, each with unique geometric footprints, and maximized production capabilities. Based upon theoretical production capacities they are:


    1. 13’X8’ (2,500 gpd max.) Production capacity. Capable of being nested/stacked/shipped in 53’ HQ containers. We estimate that a full 53’ HQ container will contain a 50,000gpd fresh water capable system.
    2. 8’X4’ (500 gpd max.) Production capacity. Capable of being nested/transported on any full-sized flatbed pickup truck where containers are not shippable.
    3. 1 Meter Personal (5-10 gpd max.) Production capacity. Capable of being shipped anywhere in the world in a moment’s notice. This size is also suitable for retail markets such as RV, boat, etc. stores. In discussions with the World Bank for humanitarian distribution.
    4. Large water storage tanks (10,000 to 25,000 gallons) are expected to also be produced at KESS facilities (see Production Facility below). When you are producing a large amount of water, there needs to be a reliable way to store it. KESS will be responsible for both.

    Note: The internal parts and components for the 13’X8’ and 8’X4’ size cells are all identical. No redundant costs, tooling, assembly line, molds, or systems are required.

    KESS cells
    Expected Lifetime: Most all parts in KESS cells are expected to have a useful life of 20-25 years. One critical, but not terribly expensive part will need to be replaced every 10-12 years in adverse environments.

    In other words, with no cost inputs of outside power, gas, or oil, KESS cells should produce fresh water autonomously for about a quarter of a century; with minimal maintenance.

    Sub-Vendors: Several injection and rotational mold manufactures (in the US and worldwide) have already been approached and have provided us with tool bids. Electronics, transducers, motors, etc. Have been sourced and priced from multiple vendors.


    Production facility locations/Master Plan: USA and Israel.

    Initially, production and assembly will necessarily begin in central California, (as the only machine large enough in the country to produce our largest size Cell system is there.

    Perhaps a year later, after implementation and production initialization, the manufacturing and company will be home based in northern Israel.

    Our Master plans call for at least four of the largest molding systems in the world, and many smaller systems to be housed there.

    We expect to employ 2,500-3,000 people worldwide.

    With this many people, it is expected that the majority will be housed on-site in facilities that we will need to build and provide.

    There are many reasons for the KESS’s HQ to be in Israel.

    1. Israel is a recognized leader in water technology.
    2. Israel has the natural gas reserves we need for manufacturing
    3. Israel is centrally located to our largest customer bases in Africa, India, and Southern Europe, with only a small premium to Eastern South America and Caribbean/Bahamas
    4. Large pool of qualified employees

    Along with the manufacturing facility in Israel, we recognize that subsidized housing will need to be offered for a large portion of our employees.

    With housing, there are other employee requirements we foresee as well. Kitchens/Dining, Medical, Entertainment, Shopping, Security, etc. are all being considered.

    With the large amount of HDPE plastic KESS will require for all its products, an HDPE factory is being drawn into the current master plan. HDPE is derivative of natural gas, not oil.

    Fortunately, recently, Israel is becoming one of the largest natural gas producers in the world.

    For years Golda Meir used to take pokes at Moses, that is all the Middle East, he took us to the one place that had no oil. Turns out Moses wasn’t such a bad judge of location after all.

    The closest HDPE facility now is Egypt. Not a reliable or preferable partner. The short term solution is shipping pelletized HDPE from Europe and the USA via containers through Haifa. Not an optimal long term solution. We will strive to be self-reliant. To do so will require the considerable efforts and partnership of the Israeli government which has not yet been secured.

    This HDPE plant cost is approx... $4B USD.


    IV. Markets Open and Uniquely Available to KESS


    How, Where and What KESS systems will be sold?

    In House Revenue Owned Sources/Products:

    • In concert with all existing SWRO plants worldwide to mitigate the dumping of high salt concentrate brine pollution back into their source.

    • Standalone desalination systems throughout the world for nations, countries, states, community’s, homes, islands, industries….

    • Purification of international fresh water and river sources that do not have the electrical VAC grid power or finances in path to fund existing alternative filter based technologies. For example the 1,600 mile Ganges river in India.

    • IP licenses of KESS technology to qualified, multi-national manufactures/vendors

    • Water Production Contracts (“WPC”). Water sold by the gallon/meter^3 to all the above. KESS maintains assets for depreciation and sells water production.

    • Retail and Wholesale KESS sales of the 1meter KESS cells to specialty chain stores such as boat, RV, Fishing, Survivalist, etc.

    • Emergency flood water purification; without “standard” filters or membranes that are subject to inevitable clogging. KESS has no filters or membranes to foul.

    • Industrial Mining location water reclamation projects where power and filtration are either not available, too expensive, or not feasible.

    • Patented Wind Turbine Production for 5KW-50KW systems for KESS and OEM sales

    OEM (Non KESS owned product HDPE Injection/Roto Not represented in spreadsheet)

    • Hydroponics, Aquaponics, and Agriculture farming all run hand in hand and follow after water production. If you have water then you have the ability to grow crops, and protein sources/ fish wildlife.

    • OEM Military, Industrial, Commercial, Consumer Products. From experience; when one has the world class manufacturing capabilities to economically produce multiple parts/hr. for molded part sizes ranging to: 16’ (5m+) D X 34’ (10m+) L… the doors are open wide to parts at custom/customer specifications. There is no limit to the scope.


    V. How profitability will be attained and maintained in the near term and distant future.


    To become (quickly) profitable, KESS Technologies Inc. has identified several revenue streams (profit centers) to utilize and draw upon. Some of which include:

    1. Straight Equipment Sales Domestic and International. Regional offices will be established with autonomous support and sales roles.
    2. Equipment Leasing. Initially a third party contractor will be used. Down the road, in house leasing is expected to be implemented.
    3. Long term Water Sales Contracts (“WSC”) (equipment owned /held as assets and depreciated). This is anticipated to be KESS’s largest profit center/stream. Note: Worldwide, (on non-50Mg/d or larger SWRO state owned systems) retail water currently costs between $.35-$.65/g. At near zero operational production costs, KESS can/will out compete any vendor.
    4. IP Licensing Fees (to suitable and qualified manufactures). There are a number of multi-national players with the ability to produce and distribute KESS cells, under license. Many of these have been identified.

    Please see the Summary KESS 3 year forecast P&L spreadsheets below for details. (Full pdf available). The numbers may seem irrational and even ridiculous, until one considers that the market for KESS is the entire Planet (within 40-45º of the equator), and there are effectively no competitors for what it is able to achieve.

    Many domestic and international, customers have already been identified and verbally secured with initial introductions made. These include national, regional, state, corporate customers.


    VI. Projected P&L Summary


    The purpose of this section is to illustrate the scope of planned potential sales, revenue sources, expenses and profitability. OEM/ Non KESS product sales not included.


    VII. Risks and Unknowns.


    There are always some inherent risks involved with any new venture and investment. In this case we estimate the known to be:

    1. Lack of Funding. There is a minimum amount required. After this has been reached, drawn plans will be followed to maintain a growth path.
    2. Physics doesn’t prove out on the large scale. The larger scale is expected to actually decrease this risk. Higher volumes of air, water, temperature stability, parts sizes, all work in KESS’s favor.
    3. Products not able to be manufactured. KESS employees have a very strong pedigree in design, manufacturing, logistics/shipping and onsite setup.
    4. Key people. KESS has key people already in key roles. KESS is expected have 2,500-3,000 employees within two years. All filling critical roles. KESS personnel has substantial experience in all required areas including: design, engineering, problem solving, manufacturing, logistics, shipping, financing, HR, etc.
    5. Defense against future competitors (non-existent now…but…) after full funding, KESS will be setting aside $500K USD in its legal defense fund. Yes, there will be legal tests, but KESS will make full defenses of all its IP and rights.
    6. Materials/Supply Problems. In order to mitigate and control this risk, multiple sources have already been identified for all materials, parts, etc.
    7. Market Limitations: Like all water treatment systems, KESS has an Achilles heel when it comes to treating high VOC contaminated water. In those areas that have highly polluted waters, (such as some harbors and bays) KESS has to be very careful to avoid delivering systems without pre-treatment systems in play.
    8. Information loss/theft. This is a sizeable risk that must be mitigated. Without detail or clarification, many operational functions and capabilities of KESS are strictly proprietary and confidential and not even revealed, discussed, nor mentioned in the patents. Our corporate posture is clear.
    9. Our responsibility is to more economically produce, clean and purify fresh water with our systems, not educate others how we do it. We are a for profit business, not an educational institution/forum/blog. There are many that already resent this position. Our IP will be safeguarded, protected, and prosecuted, with extreme prejudice, to the fullest extent allowed by law.

    Note: The prevalent atmospheric water collection systems do not pose any risk to KESS technology. The collected amounts are teacup trivial in relation, are dependent upon local humidity levels, and still require VAC power. With all due respect, non-players.1.


    VIII. Fundraising objectives and investment opportunities.


    A minimum investment is being procured to meet the current primary objective, i.e. going into production and shipping first units. The goal is to keep this number small until the company’s valuation increases. The reasons for this strategy are listed below.

    As of December, 2018, KESS has a market evaluation value of between $10-$20M. Stock percentage to $$$ investments will be determined by this rate. After initial production, trials, and shipments, KESS’s market value will be re-evaluated and reset.

    • Several levels are feasible for the first round, dependent upon scale, sizes, production, implementation schedule and timing.
    • $500 K minimum. Two smaller sizes built, optimized and tested.
    • $2.5M: Initial - Additional $7.5 M; Month 8-10/End of 1st Year ($10M Total).
    All sizes built, optimized and tested, initial production begins

    The immediate goal (repeated) is to begin limited initial production, shipment and delivery of all three sizes utilizing contracted molding vendors. This will allow corporate valuation growth, in turn allowing for further funding. Following, successful implementation, and with increased company valuation, KESS will initiate an IPO process to raise the VC capital that is required to build a full scale facility with worldwide shipments.

    Funding has been offered to KESS with the “rails” between $500M and $4B, following delivery and successful implementation of the first units.

    The total five year budget for all envisioned projects outlined here approaches $8B…including the stand-alone manufacturing facilities.

    Please see accompanying spreadsheets detailing utilization and Use of Funds for each.


    KESS Technologies Inc. (De.)

    KESStechnologies.com
    3495 Lakeside Dr. #224
    Reno, NV. 89509 USA

    Patent Attorneys – BIPC, Wash. D.C.
    Business/SEC Attorneys - Wilmer-Hale, Wash. D.C.

    Contact:
    markdgoodley founder, ceo
    markdgoodley@kesstechnologies.com
    (760) 213-4958

    KESS® Technologies Inc. Business Plan Narrative




    I. Why KESS?


    KESS Technologies, Inc. is a multi-discipline, integrative, high technology company offering several new innovative product lines.

    KESS was recently awarded a patent for fresh water generation systems which efficiently, economically, reliably and safely extracts large amounts of fresh clean water from salt/brackish/ocean /polluted waters,
    without the excessive costs and amounts of power normally associated with desalination and water purification, a first, never before achieved.

    Importantly, KESS Cells also have the inherent capabilities to significantly mitigate the severe environmental impact issues of all SWRO (SeaWater Reverse Osmosis) systems; i.e., The discharge brine (backflush) that is polluting the world’s seas and oceans.

    While the focus will always remain producing fresh water without VAC (or other fuel burning sourced power), under the KESS corporate umbrella, there are several closely related satellite and component profit center divisions; which are summarized herein, though not yet represented in the summary P&L below.

    Due to the patented innovation and integration of technologies (physics, chemistry, electronics, software, tight tolerance mechanics, transducer/sensors), KESS Cells, with tight tolerance components, while still experimental, are expected to operate so efficiently and effectively, that the entire system, no matter the size, will operate independently and discretely only on renewable power sources, including, but not limited to, wind, solar, pedal power, etc.

    We refer to the speed and efficiency of this conversion process as HASE© (Hyper Accelerated Solar Evaporation). Small improvements in many areas multiplying into overall sizeable gains.

    In comparison to current leading technology, SWRO, there are no expensive high wattage motors, high pressure pumps, or semipermeable filters to change out or dispose of. Conversely, KESS operates at relatively low heat and low pressure differentials.

    And as opposed to SWRO, the only byproduct extracted from KESS, in most cases, is dry salable table salt. (Though with some brackish waters there may be other less desirable byproducts which will need to be disposed).

    In contrast with KESS systems, current SWRO systems are hundreds to thousands of times more expensive to build, operate, fuel and maintain.

    SWRO systems require massive amounts of prohibitively expensive energy to operate. In some cases, these operating costs and vast amounts of energy required to keep a SWRO system operating are the reasons they are not employed.

    For example, a large SWRO system (50M/gal (180K^3m) /day), with the power plant necessary to operate the plant, typically costs in the neighborhood of $2B USD to build and $250M a year in energy costs alone to operate !

    In addition to the excessive energy costs, SWRO systems require a lot of maintenance. The expensive SWRO filters need to be changed out; typically every few months. SWRO operates with high pressure (1,000-2,000 psi) and high temperature, often resulting in pump failures. Again, KESS is neither constrained nor impacted by any of these issues.

    It’s particularly important to note that unlike KESS, no SWRO system in the world can reduce their continuous waste stream to a dry, easily transportable byproduct, which is both their environmental curse, and KESS’s opportunity.

    KESS technology represents the potential for a true and very rare paradigm shift on the planet.

    In the creation of fresh water is a unique opportunity to do something truly important on the earth for all of its inhabitants.

    ***

    As you may be aware, there is a critical and growing fresh water shortage on earth. Within 40-45 degrees of the equator, we are either already out of water, or soon will be.

    This is a planetary problem that began about 10,000 years ago with/at the end of the last ice age. The planetary fresh water quantity/loss has been on a downward spiral trajectory ever since. It’s not going to change any time soon.

    We’re not suggesting you should forget about what you hear about “global warming”. Yet the facts are that the problem started a long time ago and have little or nothing to do with us being here.

    Till now, the choices and options have not been good.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) states that roughly 2/3’s of all illnesses are water related.

    Over 2 billion people on the earth today drink polluted, infectious water every day, if they can find water at all, as many regions have very little to no fresh water at all.

    There’s plenty of salt water, (It’s estimated that 75% of the world’s population lives within 100 miles of an ocean/sea) but many do not have a drop to drink, wash, irrigate crops, etc. The lack of fresh water is a critical human, animal and agricultural emergency.

    Water is truly
    not what many business marketers universally refer to as a “space”. This is a truly offensive statement to us.

    Water is much, much more. Water is life. We are passionate about providing fresh water, at absolutely minimal cost, to the planet.

    As a planetary people, we needed to find a way to solve the catastrophic water shortage problem. And we have.


    ***

    We Must change this paradigm problem. We can change this. We Will change this.


    II. Where We Are Currently.

    • The initial (of several KESS patents was filed in June 2018. In record time, the USPTO allowed all the claims in the KESS design and utility patent and it was published recently in mid-December 2018. The message was crystal clear, “There is a huge humanitarian need for this technology, get going.” We have many more patents to go.

    • The KESS trademark has been universally registered and accepted.

    • Through close affiliations with other patent holders and KESS principle patent holders, our patents for Wind Turbines (to power KESS Cells) were allowed and published in 2016-17. A patent for low cost solar cell optimization was likewise allowed.

    • So, in terms of securing the necessary IP, we are ready to go. We have a clear, straight path. We know what we need to do, where we need to go, and how to get there. There are always questions, problems, and development issues, and through our involvement in various successful ventures, we have a proven track record of solving them.

    • Initial working prototypes are designed, manufactured, and tested. (See below). Many sub-systems, parts, assemblies, concepts are already conceived, designed and tested. Many more to follow.

    • The last year has seen a tremendous “evolution” and improvements to design, utility, and abilities. While initially the large KESS cells were designed to be made from concrete, block, as permanent infrastructure, and constructed individually at perhaps 1 per week. The current designs can be mass produced at many per hour.

    • The current designs are now also floatable (for areas with restricted land availability or high cost.)

    • Not only are KESS cells now able to be mass produced on a large scale, but they are much less expensive, shippable, containerized(able), and able to quickly reach anywhere in the world.

    • USA and Israeli corporations formed. VAT in Israel started. 15% Employee stock plan drawn and adopted.

    • KESStechnologies.com Website up and running; planned improvements to come.


    III. Where We are Going


    We have necessarily been operating on a minimal budget for such an extraordinarily large project. There have been the normal legal expenses, operating expenses, production expenses, travel expenses, etc.

    Our patent and trademark applications and business creation have required a good portion of the investment money we have received thus far, with much farther to go.

    We attempted to make small prototype samples using 3D printing and fiberglass construction. Though we ultimately had some success with testing some aspects of KESS, neither of the techniques proved adequate to fully test and optimize all of the aspects of the KESS system.

    We have determined that high precision injection and rotomolded parts will be necessary to test and optimize the systems. The molds, tooling and components are expensive, however they are necessary to maintain the tolerances needed for optimization. It is also necessary to have a team for assembly, testing and shipping these systems.

    It should be noted that the molds and tooling mentioned above, will be used to make production systems going forward. Therefore the expense of these items is not lost on only prototypes.

    Three sizes of KESS “cells” are designed, each with unique geometric footprints, and maximized production capabilities. Based upon theoretical production capacities they are:


    1. 13’X8’ (2,500 gpd max.) Production capacity. Capable of being nested/stacked/shipped in 53’ HQ containers. We estimate that a full 53’ HQ container will contain a 50,000gpd fresh water capable system.
    2. 8’X4’ (500 gpd max.) Production capacity. Capable of being nested/transported on any full-sized flatbed pickup truck where containers are not shippable.
    3. 1 Meter Personal (5-10 gpd max.) Production capacity. Capable of being shipped anywhere in the world in a moment’s notice. This size is also suitable for retail markets such as RV, boat, etc. stores. In discussions with the World Bank for humanitarian distribution.
    4. Large water storage tanks (10,000 to 25,000 gallons) are expected to also be produced at KESS facilities (see Production Facility below). When you are producing a large amount of water, there needs to be a reliable way to store it. KESS will be responsible for both.

    Note: The internal parts and components for the 13’X8’ and 8’X4’ size cells are all identical. No redundant costs, tooling, assembly line, molds, or systems are required.

    KESS cells
    Expected Lifetime: Most all parts in KESS cells are expected to have a useful life of 20-25 years. One critical, but not terribly expensive part will need to be replaced every 10-12 years in adverse environments.

    In other words, with no cost inputs of outside power, gas, or oil, KESS cells should produce fresh water autonomously for about a quarter of a century; with minimal maintenance.

    Sub-Vendors: Several injection and rotational mold manufactures (in the US and worldwide) have already been approached and have provided us with tool bids. Electronics, transducers, motors, etc. Have been sourced and priced from multiple vendors.


    Production facility locations/Master Plan: USA and Israel.

    Initially, production and assembly will necessarily begin in central California, (as the only machine large enough in the country to produce our largest size Cell system is there.

    Perhaps a year later, after implementation and production initialization, the manufacturing and company will be home based in northern Israel.

    Our Master plans call for at least four of the largest molding systems in the world, and many smaller systems to be housed there.

    We expect to employ 2,500-3,000 people worldwide.

    With this many people, it is expected that the majority will be housed on-site in facilities that we will need to build and provide.

    There are many reasons for the KESS’s HQ to be in Israel.

    1. Israel is a recognized leader in water technology.
    2. Israel has the natural gas reserves we need for manufacturing
    3. Israel is centrally located to our largest customer bases in Africa, India, and Southern Europe, with only a small premium to Eastern South America and Caribbean/Bahamas
    4. Large pool of qualified employees

    Along with the manufacturing facility in Israel, we recognize that subsidized housing will need to be offered for a large portion of our employees.

    With housing, there are other employee requirements we foresee as well. Kitchens/Dining, Medical, Entertainment, Shopping, Security, etc. are all being considered.

    With the large amount of HDPE plastic KESS will require for all its products, an HDPE factory is being drawn into the current master plan. HDPE is derivative of natural gas, not oil.

    Fortunately, recently, Israel is becoming one of the largest natural gas producers in the world.

    For years Golda Meir used to take pokes at Moses, that is all the Middle East, he took us to the one place that had no oil. Turns out Moses wasn’t such a bad judge of location after all.

    The closest HDPE facility now is Egypt. Not a reliable or preferable partner. The short term solution is shipping pelletized HDPE from Europe and the USA via containers through Haifa. Not an optimal long term solution. We will strive to be self-reliant. To do so will require the considerable efforts and partnership of the Israeli government which has not yet been secured.

    This HDPE plant cost is approx... $4B USD.


    IV. Markets Open and Uniquely Available to KESS


    How, Where and What KESS systems will be sold?

    In House Revenue Owned Sources/Products:

    • In concert with all existing SWRO plants worldwide to mitigate the dumping of high salt concentrate brine pollution back into their source.

    • Standalone desalination systems throughout the world for nations, countries, states, community’s, homes, islands, industries….

    • Purification of international fresh water and river sources that do not have the electrical VAC grid power or finances in path to fund existing alternative filter based technologies. For example the 1,600 mile Ganges river in India.

    • IP licenses of KESS technology to qualified, multi-national manufactures/vendors

    • Water Production Contracts (“WPC”). Water sold by the gallon/meter^3 to all the above. KESS maintains assets for depreciation and sells water production.

    • Retail and Wholesale KESS sales of the 1meter KESS cells to specialty chain stores such as boat, RV, Fishing, Survivalist, etc.

    • Emergency flood water purification; without “standard” filters or membranes that are subject to inevitable clogging. KESS has no filters or membranes to foul.

    • Industrial Mining location water reclamation projects where power and filtration are either not available, too expensive, or not feasible.

    • Patented Wind Turbine Production for 5KW-50KW systems for KESS and OEM sales

    OEM (Non KESS owned product HDPE Injection/Roto Not represented in spreadsheet)

    • Hydroponics, Aquaponics, and Agriculture farming all run hand in hand and follow after water production. If you have water then you have the ability to grow crops, and protein sources/ fish wildlife.

    • OEM Military, Industrial, Commercial, Consumer Products. From experience; when one has the world class manufacturing capabilities to economically produce multiple parts/hr. for molded part sizes ranging to: 16’ (5m+) D X 34’ (10m+) L… the doors are open wide to parts at custom/customer specifications. There is no limit to the scope.


    V. How profitability will be attained and maintained in the near term and distant future.


    To become (quickly) profitable, KESS Technologies Inc. has identified several revenue streams (profit centers) to utilize and draw upon. Some of which include:

    1. Straight Equipment Sales Domestic and International. Regional offices will be established with autonomous support and sales roles.
    2. Equipment Leasing. Initially a third party contractor will be used. Down the road, in house leasing is expected to be implemented.
    3. Long term Water Sales Contracts (“WSC”) (equipment owned /held as assets and depreciated). This is anticipated to be KESS’s largest profit center/stream. Note: Worldwide, (on non-50Mg/d or larger SWRO state owned systems) retail water currently costs between $.35-$.65/g. At near zero operational production costs, KESS can/will out compete any vendor.
    4. IP Licensing Fees (to suitable and qualified manufactures). There are a number of multi-national players with the ability to produce and distribute KESS cells, under license. Many of these have been identified.

    Please see the Summary KESS 3 year forecast P&L spreadsheets below for details. (Full pdf available). The numbers may seem irrational and even ridiculous, until one considers that the market for KESS is the entire Planet (within 40-45º of the equator), and there are effectively no competitors for what it is able to achieve.

    Many domestic and international, customers have already been identified and verbally secured with initial introductions made. These include national, regional, state, corporate customers.


    VI. Projected P&L Summary


    The purpose of this section is to illustrate the scope of planned potential sales, revenue sources, expenses and profitability. OEM/ Non KESS product sales not included.


    VII. Risks and Unknowns.


    There are always some inherent risks involved with any new venture and investment. In this case we estimate the known to be:

    1. Lack of Funding. There is a minimum amount required. After this has been reached, drawn plans will be followed to maintain a growth path.
    2. Physics doesn’t prove out on the large scale. The larger scale is expected to actually decrease this risk. Higher volumes of air, water, temperature stability, parts sizes, all work in KESS’s favor.
    3. Products not able to be manufactured. KESS employees have a very strong pedigree in design, manufacturing, logistics/shipping and onsite setup.
    4. Key people. KESS has key people already in key roles. KESS is expected have 2,500-3,000 employees within two years. All filling critical roles. KESS personnel has substantial experience in all required areas including: design, engineering, problem solving, manufacturing, logistics, shipping, financing, HR, etc.
    5. Defense against future competitors (non-existent now…but…) after full funding, KESS will be setting aside $500K USD in its legal defense fund. Yes, there will be legal tests, but KESS will make full defenses of all its IP and rights.
    6. Materials/Supply Problems. In order to mitigate and control this risk, multiple sources have already been identified for all materials, parts, etc.
    7. Market Limitations: Like all water treatment systems, KESS has an Achilles heel when it comes to treating high VOC contaminated water. In those areas that have highly polluted waters, (such as some harbors and bays) KESS has to be very careful to avoid delivering systems without pre-treatment systems in play.
    8. Information loss/theft. This is a sizeable risk that must be mitigated. Without detail or clarification, many operational functions and capabilities of KESS are strictly proprietary and confidential and not even revealed, discussed, nor mentioned in the patents. Our corporate posture is clear.
    9. Our responsibility is to more economically produce, clean and purify fresh water with our systems, not educate others how we do it. We are a for profit business, not an educational institution/forum/blog. There are many that already resent this position. Our IP will be safeguarded, protected, and prosecuted, with extreme prejudice, to the fullest extent allowed by law.

    Note: The prevalent atmospheric water collection systems do not pose any risk to KESS technology. The collected amounts are teacup trivial in relation, are dependent upon local humidity levels, and still require VAC power. With all due respect, non-players.1.


    VIII. Fundraising objectives and investment opportunities.


    A minimum investment is being procured to meet the current primary objective, i.e. going into production and shipping first units. The goal is to keep this number small until the company’s valuation increases. The reasons for this strategy are listed below.

    As of December, 2018, KESS has a market evaluation value of between $10-$20M. Stock percentage to $$$ investments will be determined by this rate. After initial production, trials, and shipments, KESS’s market value will be re-evaluated and reset.

    • Several levels are feasible for the first round, dependent upon scale, sizes, production, implementation schedule and timing.
    • $500 K minimum. Two smaller sizes built, optimized and tested.
    • $2.5M: Initial - Additional $7.5 M; Month 8-10/End of 1st Year ($10M Total).
    All sizes built, optimized and tested, initial production begins

    The immediate goal (repeated) is to begin limited initial production, shipment and delivery of all three sizes utilizing contracted molding vendors. This will allow corporate valuation growth, in turn allowing for further funding. Following, successful implementation, and with increased company valuation, KESS will initiate an IPO process to raise the VC capital that is required to build a full scale facility with worldwide shipments.

    Funding has been offered to KESS with the “rails” between $500M and $4B, following delivery and successful implementation of the first units.

    The total five year budget for all envisioned projects outlined here approaches $8B…including the stand-alone manufacturing facilities.

    Please see accompanying spreadsheets detailing utilization and Use of Funds for each.


    KESS Technologies Inc. (De.)

    KESStechnologies.com
    3495 Lakeside Dr. #224
    Reno, NV. 89509 USA

    Patent Attorneys – BIPC, Wash. D.C.
    Business/SEC Attorneys - Wilmer-Hale, Wash. D.C.

    Contact:
    markdgoodley founder, ceo
    markdgoodley@kesstechnologies.com
    (760) 213-4958